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Although the ultimate responsibility to design air routes belongs to the aviation authorities, experience shows that the lay-out of such routes on the most part prioritizes principles of efficiency and air traffic agility over environmental concerns. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to intervene in the protection against noise pollution from the knowledge of aviation.

Maneuver Design: Standard Instrument Departure (SIDís) and Standard Terminal Arrival Route (STARís) maneuvers, have a direct impact on noise pollution due to their proximity to inhabited areas and because these stages of flight are executed either at high engine power or with less than optimal configurations in terms of noise pollution. Nevertheless, aviation regulations are ample and flexible enough as to permit searching for those maneuvers which are most beneficial to the environment.
Design of Terminal Areas: The Terminal Control Areas (TMA,s) of the airports are areas with intense air traffic. A correct design can avoid or minimize the extent of air traffic congestion and confer greater flexibility to maneuvers and flight profiles alike, while avoiding flying over inhabited areas as far as possible. Thus, the significance of the work that needs to be done on this issue.
Navigation Aids: the location of radio aids and their management have a direct influence on the distribution of terminal areas and all sorts of air maneuvers in general. Consequently, this is another issue subject to research and intervention within environmental protection.
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